Women who inject drugs are disproportionately aﬀected by HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV); however, the link between IPV and HIV remains under-researched among substance-using women in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined associations and additive eﬀects of diﬀerent forms of IPV victimization (psychological, physical and/or injurious, and sexual) on HIV sexual risk behavior among women who inject drugs in Indonesia. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit 731 women from Greater Jakarta and Bandung, West Java. RDS-II weighted prevalence of any past-year IPV was 68.9% (95% CI 65.0, 72.6) in Jakarta and 55.9% (95% CI 48.0, 63.5) in Bandung. In separate logistic regressions controlling for socio-demographic covariates, all three forms of IPV showed statistically signiﬁcant associations with sexual risk behavior. After adjusting for all IPV types, psychological (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.17, 2.99; p = 0.009) and sexual (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.22, 3.21; p = 0.006) IPV independently predicted women’s sexual risk behavior. Marginal eﬀects models suggested that co-occurrence of multiple forms of IPV had greater adverse consequences: sexual risk behavior was reported by 64.1% of women who did not experience any IPV, but increased to 89.9% among women exposed to all three types. Comprehensive harm reduction services that integrate IPV monitoring and prevention are urgently needed to reduce both HIV and IPV.
Keywords: Intimate partner violence, HIV, Sexual risk behavior, Women, Injecting drug use, Respondent-driven sampling
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